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A case for transparent net-zero carbon targets

Stephen M. Smith
Emissions Reduction (ER) and Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) are both important components of reaching net-zero. However, separating targets for the two is not an efficient way to ensure climate goals are achieved. This paper argues that we need ambitious near-term action, disclose measures to achieve these goals and to closely monitor and manage carbon sinks.

A review of commercialisation mechanisms for carbon dioxide removal

Conor Hickey, Sam Fankhauser, Stephen M. Smith, Myles Allen
The deployment of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) needs to be scaled up to achieve net zero emission pledges. This paper surveys the policy mechanisms currently in place globally to incentivise CDR, providing an estimate and distribution of the costs that different mechanisms currently pay per tonne of CDR. Incentive structures are grouped into three structures, market-based, public procurement, and fiscal mechanisms. The authors find that an equal or greater emphasis on policy innovation may be required if future requirements for CDR are to be met. Their study can further support research and policy on the identification of incentive gaps and realistic potential for CDR globally.

A systemic approach to mapping participation with low-carbon energy transitions

Jason Chilvers, Rob Bellamy, Helen Pallett & Tom Hargreaves
We need meaningful societal engagement for an effective and equitable low-carbon transition. Rather than focusing on discrete forms of participation, we need to take a systemic approach to mapping participation with energy by the UK public. This could provide the necessary plural and robust forms of social intelligence for a socially responsive, responsible, and just energy transition.

Beyond 90% capture: Possible, but at what cost?

Patrick Brandl, Mai Bui, Jason P. Hallett, Niall Mac Dowell
There has been a widespread assumption of a 90% CO2 capture rate in the future to meet net-zero targets. This paper argues that going beyond 90% capture will be vital, and provides evidence of capture rates of up to 98% in hard-to-abate sectors at a relatively low marginal cost.

Beyond emissions trading to a negative carbon economy: a proposed carbon removal obligation and its implementation

Johannes Bednar, Justin Macinante, Artem Baklanov, James Hall, Fabian Wagner, Navraj S. Ghaleigh & Michael Obersteiner
A proposed policy framework called 'carbon removal obligations' (CROs) addresses concerns about financial viability, incentives for Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) uptake, and risks associated with large-scale CDR. The updated CRO framework includes a mechanism obliging emitters to remove a tonne of CO2 for every tonne emitted and introduces a pricing instrument for temporary CO2 storage, aiming to independently regulate carbon emissions and removals.

But They Told Us It Was Safe! Carbon Dioxide Removal, Fracking, and Ripple Effects in Risk Perceptions

Emily Cox, Nick Pidgeon, Elspeth Spence
Deliberative workshops conducted with lay publics in the UK showed there to be a lack of trust in the safety and efficacy of CO2 removal. This was driven by doubt injected by fracking discourses, and a ‘ripple effect’ of heightened risk perceptions. This has the potential to undermine attempts to build societal agreement for the future deployment of CO2 removal technologies.

Carbon Capture and Storage at the end of a lost decade

Emma Martin-Roberts, Vivian Scott, Stephanie Flude, Gareth Johnson, R. Stuart Haszeldine, Stuart Gilfillan
This review examines CCS deployment efforts over the last decade. We reveal that facility deployment must increase dramatically from current levels, and much work remains to maximize storage of CO2 in vast subsurface reserves.

Carbon Dioxide Removal Policy in the Making: Assessing Developments in 9 OECD Cases

Felix Schenuit, Rebecca Colvin, Mathias Fridahl, Barry McMullin, Andy Reisinger, Daniel L. Sanchez, Stephen M. Smith, Asbjørn Torvanger, Anita Wreford and Oliver Geden
Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) has gained increasing attention from climate policymakers and stakeholders as net-zero emissions targets have proliferated as an organizing principle of climate policy. This paper proposes a tripartite conceptual typology of the varieties of CDR policymaking and calls for future comparative work, and fine-grained case-studies on established and emerging CDR policies.

Carbon removal demonstrations and problems of public perception

Laurie Waller, Emily Cox, Rob Bellamy
Expectations about the future removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere have mobilized projects which seek to demonstrate carbon removal methods, at various stages of development. Public perceptions play a critical role in demonstrations and funders widely require demonstration projects to identify and consult affected groups and communities. This review examines the extant research on perceptions of carbon removal, analyzing how studies have conceptualized the public and the role perceptions play in field trials and experiments of carbon removal methods.

Casting a Wider Net on Ocean NETs

Emily Cox, Miranda Boettcher, Elspeth Spence and Rob Bellamy
Strong risk perceptions surrounding ocean iron fertilization presents a significant barrier to implementation. This paper argues that it is not natural science uncertainties which need to better understood, but social desirability; public attitudes are crucial determinants of how governance for negative emissions technologies emerge.
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